Elektron Analog Four Sound Pack: The Richard Devine Collection

Download for free at: Elektron

128 experimental, haunting and outright bizarre Analog Four Sounds. Created by sound designer Richard Devine.

“I wanted to create a collection of abstract sounds that took advantage of the Analog Four’s extensive modulation capabilities. I hope these sounds inspire new ideas and offer some interesting starting points for a song.” — Richard Devine

Halfanese – Venom

If you’d rather not look at a pretty girl, here is just the audio.

Video: Halfanese
Model: VenomSuicideGirls
Audio: Surachai

Previous Halfanese videos:

Surachai – Embraced


My latest album, Embraced, was released digitally April 23rd and on 180 gram gatefold vinyl mid-May. This is the first time I’ve worked with a band and the result is pleasantly extreme. Embraced will be independently released through Bandcamp.

Embraced – The Absolute Process
Because of my hostile nature towards interviews, I decided that a way to avoid them would be to talk about the important aspects of the album: the process. In all, Embraced took about a year and a half of studios, other humans, and countless hours staring at the screen. If you have questions and/or comments, leave them below. Thanks for your continued support.

The writing portion of Embraced was the most time consuming. It took the longest because it was written in a four-part choral style: bass, tenor, alto, soprano – also not having a deadline didn’t help speed this process up. Having the necessary instruments to write for a large range of voices was helpful and an 8 string guitar played a key role. In all, it took about 7 months of noncommittal writing, experimentation, and arranging to be satisfied with a skeleton ready to be recorded. 

surachai_embraced_v_V3 (dragged) 1

In this writing period I was fortunate enough to have a friend lend synths including the Fenix II/III, a massive Serge system, and a Buchla 200e. These illusive synths were used in addition to the ever expanding Eurorack system I possess. The sessions with these systems helped shape the way the album was arranged by basing the structure around certain patches. A rundown of the Eurorack manufacturers that I used extensively: 4ms, Cwejman, Doepfer, Harvestman, Intellijel, Make Noise, Malekko, Schippman, Tip Top Audio, WMD.

After deciding I was ready to record, I transcribed all the audio into MIDI as reference for the musicians. There are a couple reasons I did this: the first being versatility, I wanted us to be able to ajdust the tempo while keeping all the harmonic content aligned. The second reason I transcribed audio to MIDI was that my scratch guitars were horrible. I often played without tuning or a metronome – if I had an idea, I recorded a scratch and left it at that. This scratch track method created a problem when showing the work to other musicians, so transcribing it seemed like the most logical, albeit time consuming, task in order to work with different musicians. In case you were wondering, I used the harp patch in Logic’s Sculpture as a stand-in sound. As annoying as it was, everyone grew fond of it and eventually missed it as it was being replaced by real instruments.

After a couple months of Charlie sending in recordings of his drumming to the tracks, I decided it was time to hit the studio. Greg ran the studio while I was concentrated on trying to translate the music to Charlie. Recording the drums into ProTools took about 3 days.

I didn’t do shit except make sure you could hear what Charlie was playing. Surachai made the lines fuzzier by steering me away from the over-the-top definition of modern metal, so I didn’t get too crazy about clarity. But at the end of the day, the guy is playing some cool shit and I wanted to be able to hear it. Gear-wise, I mic’d closer than I typically would, including some spot mics on cymbals that weren’t cutting through the overheads clearly enough. I used mostly API pres on the drums, for their definition and punch, and I added a bit more top than I typically would, again mostly with API eqs. I also fed a wildcard spare room mic to Surachai’s modular so he could improvise aka wank-off on it, while Charlie was tracking. Sometimes I like to run that through different pedals but Surachai had plenty of bullshit of his own to add, so I stayed away. It was a fun project. I just listened to Surachai’s final mixes and they sufficiently beat me into submission. Which I think was the goal.” – Greg Panciera

surachai_embraced_v_V3 (dragged)

With the notation written out for the four different voices, guitar tracking was basically playing a game of Guitar Hero. Listen to the metronome or drumming and play the notes on the screen while adding your own flare if you were so inclined. Shane recorded the Alto and Soprano voiced guitars over several late nights, and Drew recorded the Tenor voiced guitars on one of the tracks in a night. Aside from the sheer talent Shane and Drew possess, their input and unique style on the parts where invaluable and brought the stagnant MIDI notes to life. Tom Kelly’s standup bass sections were recorded in a night and added a depth I didn’t know the album needed. My guitars were recorded over a few nights after everyone was finished. The main bass track was recorded using a Tip Top Audio Z3000 MKII going through a couple of Malekko Fuzz pedals as well as a Sonny & Sanford Blue Beard Fuzz.

While staying in a lake house in Georgia and with a few minutes to spare before new years, Richard and I recorded burning embers underwater with his hydrophones. He pieced together the files for his own use and I just plopped it at the end of Ancestral alongside what I already had. Alessandro let me use a file that was recorded when he was giving a tutorial of the Buchla Easel to Richard and I when we all were in my studio in Chicago.

When working on an album that has sonic consistency throughout all the songs (like a traditional rock setup), I work in one giant Logic session. The advantage to this method is that it forces me to treat the arrangements of audio as a cohesive album rather a bunch of collected songs. Global changes like adding dynamic processors are easy to implement as well as auditioning patches throughout the entire album. Most of the mixing was performed on JH Audio’s JH16 in ear monitors and there is a reason for this: between work and my different workspaces I have 5 audio workstations. What most of these stations lack is consistent monitoring between them. Of course hearing mixes on different monitors in different rooms is helpful but with the JH16’s – it remained consistent. Adams A7X’s were very useful for an overall ‘pleasure’ mix while the Avantone’s were showed you how horrible your mix actually is. Some of the most used plug-ins that were essential to the mix were Universal Audio, Sound Toys, Valhalla. INA GRM, Native Instruments, U-he, and factory Logic plugs.

The only person I’ve used with mastering for vinyl is Shawn Hatfield of Audible Oddities. He’s accommodated all of my personal and label related releases. Shawn’s work has consistently been incredible, helpful, and in this particular case he elevated the mix to a level I couldn’t be happier with.

For this particular project, I combined several pieces of analog processors that when combined, give a gentle lift in the highs, and add some additional low-end harmonics. Despite each piece of gear having its own unique sound, when combined together, gear interacts with each other in unique ways that can create new flavors. So the first order of business was choosing the right processors for the project, with the help of a Dangerous Liaison. For EQ, we went with the smoothness of the Dangerous BAX EQ to help pull some air out of the music without adding harshness to the cymbals and guitars, and we used a Buzz REQ 2.2 to get a little surgical with the guitars to help balance them as a whole with the mix. The REQ 2.2 is pretty incredible in its ability to tuck components of a mix neatly into place. We employed two gentle stages of compression, starting with a Foote Control Systems P3S ME VCA compressor which fed into a Manley Vari-Mu. I really liked the combo of VCA and tube compression for these songs, but it was used very sparingly as to not alter too much of the natural dynamics. Everything was captured with a HEDD192, utilizing its pentode section for a slight increase in overall harmonics and then sent directly to the final brick-wall limiter.” – Shawn Hatfield


Ideally the vinyl process would be a one-stop shop where you would send in your master tape/digital files/what-have-you to be lacquered, plated, and then duplicated. From my experience, the one-stop shop method is not the way to go. For the past few releases I extended the signal path by including Roger Seibel of SAE mastering. Making lacquers and metal parts are specialized skills and while some places want to perform it all in house, or outsource it – I prefer to use people I trust and know have skills backed by years of experience. Also, pressing plants generally subtract lacquering costs if you decide to outsource it. So, Roger Seibel handled the lacquering and sent it to Mastercraft to be metal plated, they in turn send it to GottaGroov to be printed.

Caspar Newbolt of Version Industries was in charge of the visuals of Embraced. Ever since I saw his work with Big Black Delta, I was instantly captivated. I asked him early on, before I recorded anything and always thought he would lose interest but as the months went by, we kept in touch and he continued to ask about the progress. When artwork finally comes in, you can instantly tell if the visual artist understands what you’re doing – Caspar does. He understands that his artwork will forever represent every ounce of energy you put into the project and places a visual stamp on it. He has achieved a level of understanding on the content where I won’t include lyrics on the album.

Public Relations
When releasing anything, whether it being a pile of shit or diamonds, you must let the world know it exists or the worst thing will happen: it will be ignored. Kim Kelly is someone I admire for many reasons but mainly I choose her as PR because of our differences. Many of our opinions and interests align but our personalities don’t. Kim is social, easily approachable, friendly, smart, and open – I am not. She proofreads my answers to interviews and I receive brutally honest feedback, “You are SUCH a dick. I really, really love it! I would get so mad to get those kinds of answers back”. She’s one of the best people to have on your side, and you are lucky if she likes your music.

Embraced is independently funded and released. It would be nice having a label front the studio, mastering, vinyl production, and PR costs but depending on the terms, it could end up biting you in the ass. I’d rather go into debt than ask for money on Kickstarter. I’ve always put myself in a position to be as involved as possible, admiring but not always following the DIY or DIE philosophy. Regardless if I trust or employ people, if my product “fails”, it is still on me. Blaming someone else is not something I’m interested in – I’ll take full responsibility of my failures and successes.


The Crew
Drums – Charlie Werber (Guzzlemug, Murmur, Lovely Little Girls)
Guitars – Shane Prendiville (Guzzlemug, Murmur)
Guitars – Andrew Markuszewski (Nachtmystium, Avichi, Lord Mantis)
Acoustic Bass – Tom Kelly (Guzzlemug)
Sound Design – Richard Devine (Warp, Schematic)
Buchla Easel – Alessandro Cortini (Sonoio, NIN, How to Destroy Angels)
Guitars, Bass, Vocals, Synths, DSP – Surachai

Drums Recorded with – Greg Panciera
Mastering – Shawn Hatfield
Lacquering – Roger Seibel
Artwork – Caspar Newbolt
PR – Kim Kelly

Grendel Formant Filter – Voltage Language

Demonstrating synthesis of vowel sounds using the Grendel Formant Filter Eurorack module. This 100% analog filter allows voltage-controlled selection of English vowels from a 2-dimensional map. The map corresponds to the International Phonetic Alphabet vowel chart, a.k.a. the vowel trapezium.

In this video, an analog joystick with X and Y CV outputs is used to control the filter module. Two channels of MIDI-CV converter may also be used. The module is designed to accept CV sources with 5 volt range. Either -2.5 .. +2.5 volts or 0.. +5 volts can be used for optimum control. Wider CV ranges (up to +/- 10V) will not cause damage, but should be attenuated for best articulation.

Visualizations were made with a Tektronix TDS 350 digital oscilloscope in XY display mode, 1 volt per division.

The Grendel Formant Filter is made by Rare Waves (Austin TX)

Eric Archer

This is fun, TWEAKERS / DPO meets Octatrack

“In this video, we introduce how to work with eurorack modular synthesizer, particularly DPO from Make Noise, combine with Elektron Octatrack. Octatrack’s MIDI track is sequencing modular then modular’s final output is connected to Octatrack’s audio input for realtime sampling. Sampled sounds are looped and processed to create few different layers then mixed with modular’s direct sound.”

VCO : Make Noise DPO, Tiptop Z3000 x 2
VCA : Intellijel uVCA, Doepfer A-131
VCF : Malekko Borg Filter, Intellijel uVCF
Envelope Generator : Make Noise Maths, Doepfer A-140
Mixer : Pittsburgh Mixer
Etc : Doepfer A-147 (LFO), Doepfer A185-2 (Adder), Doepfer A-190-2 (MIDI to CV)
(Other gears)
Elektron Octatrack
Eventide Timefactor
Mackie 1202VLZ Pro
Demonstrator : Koichi Shimizu


An Overview Of The Dial Up Sound

dialup-final copy

“If you ever connected to the Internet before the 2000s, you probably remember that it made a peculiar sound. But despite becoming so familiar, it remained a mystery for most of us. What do these sounds mean?”

Click on the graphic above for a full page illustration walking you through each step of the old school dial up modem handshaking process. Finally, I have figured out what all the beeps mean. I wish it explained why my dial-up game of Command And Conquer would stop working when someone picked up a phone in the house. Want to get real nerdy with your interior decor? The image above is now for sale in poster form.

The Sound Of Dial Up via Absorptions

How To Play The Keyboard

How To Basics “Teaching You The Basics”

UM Project: Amazing Furniture Design

Mixing console for analog equipment including late 1960’s WSW (Wiener Schwachstromwerke) and modern-day Tonelux, developed for Brian Bender’s The Motherbrain recording studio

Photography: Francis Dzikowksi/ Esto


Glitchmachines – Fragment

Glitchmachines FRAGMENT – Promo Video from Glitchmachines on Vimeo.

Another beautifully crafted sample bank from Glitchmachines for only $9!

Fragment features 300 sound effects by Ivo Ivanov, an exclusive plugin from Inear Display and a custom Lemur template from Antonio Blanca.

The lo-fi character of this sample pack is suitable for projects in need of aggressive, provocative, and mind-bending material. Sourced from a private collection of circuit bent hardware, these samples were skillfully layered and processed to offer a fresh perspective on the sonic range typically associated with bent sounds.

Inear Display’s Fragment plugin is a collaborative effort between Thomas Hennebert, Ivo Ivanov, and Antonio Blanca. It features a granulizer/stutter effect, a multimode filter, and an LFO, and is designed to achieve a wide range of sonic artifacts. Fragment includes a custom Lemur template for iPad, crafted by sound designer and Lemur expert Antonio Blanca, giving you multi-touch control over every parameter.

Glitchmachines – Fragment

Workspace and Environment: Blush Response


How long have you been making music?

I’ve been making music on my own since I was around 16. I had always seen bands I adored in pictures on the internet, and wanted to become as cool as they were. I didn’t really know what that meant, but the initial thing that wowed me was stage presence and live shows. Seeing people really dominate in a live setting and command a crowd was something I was into. Very vain of me. Once I started actually creating music, I found the most rewarding thing was the actual creative process. Making something from nothing, something that I had never heard before, and that I could enjoy listening to, became the ultimate goal. I would sit for hours with my first synthesizer and just drone tweaking a patch, learning the ins and outs of sound design, and hearing sounds which at the time I thought had never been made before. I played in various bands throughout high school, and in college I sought to finally start a project of my own.

What is the name you work under and where can we find your work?

I work under the name BLUSH RESPONSE. My official website is http://wearereplicants.com – that is the portal to everything I do, and all the various social networks I participate in. I’ve been making music under this name since 2009.

The first BLUSH RESPONSE album, WE ARE REPLICANTS, was released in May 2010. Since then I’ve released a few EPs, and two singles leading up to the second album TENSION STRATEGIES. The second album will be released March 05, 2013, on Tundra. Two singles have been released so far, AMERICA, and VOICES (with it’s accompanying video).

What is your current favorite piece of hardware?

My Eurorack modular is the most inspiring tool I’ve ever used. Limitless sound uninhibited by interface. Using modular gear has made me realize the limitations present in something like a traditional black and white keyboard. When you use an instrument like a guitar, for example, every touch you make is visceral and reactive. The string vibration and sound is something directly affected by so many variables. Hand pressure, picking, angle of picking, speed, air pressure, body movement, etc… All of these directly connect you to the raw sound of your guitar oscillator in a way that black and white keyed synthesizers simply do not. You at most have pitch bend, mod wheel, aftertouch, and whatever knobs the synthesizer gives you, but these offer no direct connection to bend the circuits at will.

With a modular synth, you have something that is infinitely more direct, and more similar to the dynamic approach found with a guitar. First off, you don’t need to use a keyboard. You can just open up a VCA (or not even use one), and drone! I find cv to be much more “alive” than midi, and the results you can get with similar patches on a modular versus a non modular synth are much more dynamic. Plus, the interface encourages experimentation. I’ve had cool patches by just messing with the ground on patch cables. Tripping sequencers by touching one cable end to a conductor, jamming audio sources into cv inputs, etc… It really is a life changing thing. I don’t know if I could ever go back to the regular approach. It seems so archaic. It would be like trying to play a guitar by guiding somebody else’s hands.
Modular Station
My euro is mainly made up of modules from Make Noise, The Harvestman, WMD, and Intellijel, but there are some other great pieces in there. Favorite modules at the moment are the Schippmann CS-8, Harvestman Tyme Sefari II, Make Noise DPO, Echophon, WMD Synchrodyne, and Intellijel Rubicon.

What is your current favorite software or plugin? What makes this your favorite?

I’ve recently switched DAWs to Ableton Live, and I feel that Ableton is a party I should have attended years ago. The interface and workflow are simply unrivaled. Even basic stuff like audio editing in the arrange window is a million times smoother and more intelligently implemented than my last DAW (logic pro). I can’t believe I didn’t use this before. I had some concerns about the quality of the mix engine, but I just mixed a song with the Ableton 9 beta, and I think it sounds just as good as any other DAW out there. Much improved.

There are also several new plugins that have come out that I am blown away by. Off the top of my head – Eventide H3000 Factory, Sonic Charge Permut8, Izotope Iris and Trash 2, the Soundhack Suite, and several others. Plugins have finally (IMO) reached a point where they are powerful enough to explore new concepts in sound that do not imitate existing hardware, without faltering due to CPU overuse or bad implementation of concepts. That is incredibly exciting to me. I enjoy combining these esoteric sound shaping tools with hardware to create entirely new sounds that were simply unavailable before.


How does your physical space and surroundings influence your workflow?

My studio is set up so everything can be on and recording all at once. I don’t want to have to worry about things being plugged in or having to set up a piece of gear just to use it. I make sure everything has a dedicated channel that can be armed and recorded at a moment’s notice. This allows me to have one man “jams” where everything is going at once and evolving organically while I flesh out raw output to later be shaped into a proper song.

I live in New York City, and my output is a direct result of my existence here. The concrete jungle is filled with noise at all times. All of these sounds bounce around in my mind subliminally and influence the types of sounds I create when I am in my workspace. I spend a lot of time sampling things I hear around the city. It could be anything, from noisy construction site sounds to overheard conversation or subway preachers. My phone is one of the most useful pieces of gear I have in this respect – I can pull it out and record sound at a moment’s notice and archive it for later use.

MetasonixHow is your studio set up in regards to ergonomics?

As I mentioned before, I like having everything set up to be able to record at a moment’s notice. Vocals, guitars, synthesizers, drums, etc. They all have their own dedicated channel ready to go with whatever plugins I need on them to sound the way I like.

Physically, every gear is in a sort of “station”. My desk has my computer and all my drum sources on it. To my immediate left is a keyboard stand with my Virus and Poly Evolver, and to my right is my modular and FX rack. All of this stuff can be routed into each other with the click of a mouse, and it’s all set up to be within reach so I can just go with no stopping, and without having to mess with the computer that much.

What is your ideal location for a studio?

I’m pretty satisfied with the location I have now, but I definitely would like something a bit bigger and a properly treated room. Also a live room so I could sample acoustic instruments and mess with miccing samples and creating weird impulse responses.

Are you involved in any music/sound work outside of your own projects?

I have been doing a lot of sound design and engineering work for other artists as of late.
I contributed sound design/programming and a remix to the most recent FEAR FACTORY album THE INDUSTRIALIST. It was an amazing opportunity and a lot of fun to do. I was given free reign to fill their songs with whatever sounds I saw fit, and they would pick and choose the parts they liked. It ended up that I am on nearly every track on the album, and the remix I did turned out pretty cool and was included as a bonus track.

The offshoot of this is I was able to work with Rhys Fulber (FRONT LINE ASSEMBLY, CONJURE ONE, DELERIUM), who produced the album, and I’ve done a bit of production work for him here and there, which has also been a great opportunity.

I also contributed some synth work to Tyler Burns’ most recent release VULGARIS, and helped co produce and write for Tom Napack’s project VANITY POLICE. I wrote the lead single THINGS YOU DON’T MEAN with him, and co produced several of the tracks on his upcoming release(s).

How would you describe your work ethic?

My music writing generally has two phases. First there is the “jam” phase. This phase generally revolves around the idea of playing with raw sound until I’ve created a large section of audio that I can later mess with/edit/warp/turn into a more structured skeleton for a song.

This jam phase can be anything from tweaking a modular patch, a raw oscillator output, or a full fledged beat with drum machines, basslines, and other ideas. I try to work in a way that is fueled by immediacy. If I don’t have something cool coming out of a piece of gear within 5 minutes I switch to something different and continue on. I don’t like to be stymied by frustration with one sound that simply isn’t working, and I also believe every piece of gear can be used well in some way. I don’t like comparisons, I think everything has a role, and that role can always change dependent on what you are going for – or not going for. Happy accidents are beautiful.

The second phase involves taking the raw audio and editing down and cutting the coolest parts into useful segments. Sometimes they don’t even make it into proper song structure, sometimes they just get thrown into a sample folder. What matters is having this audio, and being able to draw from it when it is time to move into structural thinking. I guess this falls under sound collage, but it feels much more organic to me. Ableton Live is a big help in this process – the liberties it allows you to take with audio are simply mind blowing.


What was the first piece of hardware you remember obtaining? What’s your newest?

My first piece of gear was a Microkorg. I found it to be a pretty solid synth, but a pain to learn on. Soon after I got a Virus B for very cheap, and was able to teach myself the basics of subtractive synthesis on that. I also had downlaoded Fruity Loops (to use as a drum machine) and Sony Acid Pro so I used all this stuff in tandem to teach myself the most basic forms of audio production.

I most recently picked up the Elektron Analog Four. I haven’t come to a conclusion on it yet. I feel that it has a lot of very cool ideas with sequencing analog sound that are limited by the sound engine. I would have liked stuff like linear FM, waveshaping, and perhaps a digital oscillator or two to be implemented to really flesh out the sound. The analog engine is beautifully implemented and sounds great, but I’ve always felt there is only so much you can do with an analog oscillator and filter.

I need FM, I need wavetables or shaping, and I need esoteric sound sources to use with the sequencer. Perhaps an Octatrack would be more up my alley, but I am trying to give the A4 it’s proper due before I make my final verdict. I love the parameter locking and micro timing stuff in the sequencer.

What is on your current ‘wish list’ for new hardware or software?

I would love to have a Buchla 200e system. I was lucky enough to use one recently and it was simply beautiful. It has actually re-informed my approach to my eurorack system because of the limitations implied by the format. With Buchla, you only get one selection of modules and a sparing choice of third party manufacturers, which forces you to make the most out of your system configuration. Eurorack is a format that is booming and has so many different choices that you can often become overwhelmed and overbuy or end up with stuff that is cool in theory but you never end up fully maximizing. Using the Buchla made me reconsider the idea of building a system for a certain purpose, and not moving from there. Limitations force you to be creative in ways you wouldn’t otherwise if you were inundated with options. They force you to explore every inch of one tool, rather than small portions of several.

I’d love to see some more innovation with sampling in modular systems, going into spectral morphing type of stuff like Izotope Iris. Also perhaps more esoteric digital modules exploring concepts like additive synthesis, and more alternative control interfaces. Control surfaces like the Haken Continuum and Buchla 222e really redefine interaction with sound, and allow you to be expressive in a way you would never achieve with a black and white keyboard – all while remaining “musical”. You can have a million sound sources, but the way you interact with them is what makes them really come alive.

live 1

Do you have a mobile studio setup?

My mobile setup consists of Ableton Live, a Teenage Engineering OP-1, and a huge bank of samples from all my various synthesizers that I can throw in and mess with. With this in mind, I generally don’t get much work done on the road as I feel confined by the lack of hands on control. Working on software is tiring for me a lot of the time.

Do you have a setup for live performances?

My live setup is revolved around the idea of reproducing studio tracks while being able to riff on them and take them into new performative places mid song. The last few shows with the live band have seen us transition from a straight playing back approach to improvising and branching out with different approaches to the songs. This means adding new sounds that weren’t present, and playing off of each other so it’s a little bit different every time.

live 2

On stage I will sing and play with my modular system, or sometimes the OP1. I have two other members. Brendan handles drums, and Spssky changes from guitar to synth to drum triggers dependent on the song. Each song requires a different approach, so sometimes I will just sing, sometimes I’ll be sequencing with the modular – either by sending midi out or using the rene, or sometimes I’ll play a keyboard.

The goal now is to be able to change up songs on the fly, and not just by improvising new parts, but fundamentally changing the structure, build up tracks from nothing, and play around with them realtime. This will require a reworking and stripping down of a lot of the material, but I think it will make for a much more dynamic live show. The other goal is to have the sound never stop, so that there is no lull between songs.

Have you ever heard your music being played at a random/public place?

I’ve walked into a few clubs here in NYC and heard some of my songs playing, and it’s really a surreal experience. One side of you is beaming with excitement and wants to tell everybody, and the other side wants to analyze the crowd and see their reactions. I try to keep my cool though, because either approach can be maddening if you think about it for too long. I tend to just appreciate that it is even happening and continue doing what I am doing.

Tension Strategies (Physical / Digital Album)
Blush Response Official